·        Προτρεπτικός ες φιλοσοφίαν

κα ς φησν ριστοτέλης ν τ Προτρεπτικ πιγεγραμμέν, ν προτρέπει τος νέους πρς φιλοσοφίαν. φησ γρ οτως·

“ε μν φιλοσοφητέον φιλοσοφητέον κα ε μ φιλοσοφητέον φιλοσοφητέον· πάντως ρα φιλοσοφητέον. τουτέστιν ε μν γρ στι, πάντως φείλομεν φιλοσοφεν οσης ατς· ε δ

μή στι, κα οτως φείλομεν ζητεν πς οκ στι φιλοσοφία, ζητοντες δ φιλοσοφομεν, πειδ τ ζητεν ατία τς φιλοσοφίας στίν. (Elias, Prolegomena Philosophiae 3.17-23): (W.D.Ross, Aristotelis Fragmenta selecta, 1955 Frag.2)

·        Protrepticus on philosophy

“... or like Aristotle in his work entitled Protrepticus; for he puts it like this:

If you ought to philosophize you ought to philosophize; and if you ought not to philosophize you ought to philosophize: therefore, in any case you ought to philosophize. For if philosophy exists, we certainly ought to philosophize, since it exists; and if it does not exist, in that case too we ought to inquire why philosophy does not exist-and by inquiring we philosophize; for inquiry is the cause of philosophy” (the Works of Aristotle, edited byJonathan Barnes,1984)

 


“…ἡ φύσις μηθὲν μήτε ἀτελὲς ποιεῖ μήτε μάτην”  (Πολ. 1256b20-21)
“…Nature makes nothing incomplete and nothing in vain" (Pol. 1256b20-21)

πε δ περ κείνων διήλθομεν λέγοντες τ φαινόμενον μν, λοιπν περ τς
ζωϊκ
ς φύσεως επεν, μηδν παραλιπόντας ες δύναμιν μήτε τιμότερον μήτε τιμιώτερον. Κα γρ ν τος μ κεχαρισμένοις ατν πρς τν ασθησιν κατ τν θεωρίαν μως δημιουργήσασα φύσις μηχάνους δονς παρέχει τος δυναμένοις τς ατίας γνωρίζειν κα φύσει φιλοσόφοις. Κα γρ ν εη παράλογον κα τοπον, ε τς μν εκόνας ατν θεωροντες χαίρομεν τι τν δημιουργήσασαν τέχνην συν-
θεωρομεν, οον τν γραφικν τν πλαστικήν, ατν δ τν φύσει συνεστώτων μ μλλον γαπμεν τν θεωρίαν, δυνάμενοί γε τς ατίας καθορν. Δι δε μ δυσχεραίνειν παιδικς τν περ τν τιμοτέρων ζων πίσκεψιν. ν πσι γρ τος φυσικος νεστί τι θαυμαστόν· κα καθάπερ ράκλειτος λέγεται πρς τος ξένους επεν τος βουλομένους ντυχεν ατ, ο πειδ προσιόντες εδον ατν θερόμενον πρς τ πν στησαν (κέλευε γρ ατος εσιέναι θαρροντας·
εναι γρ κα νταθα θεούς), οτω κα πρς τν ζήτησιν περ κάστου τν ζωνπροσιέναι δε μ δυσωπούμενον ς ν πασιν ντος τινς φυσικο κα καλο. (Αριστοτέλους, Περί ζώων μορίων,645a4-23)

Of “things divine” we have already treated and have set down our views concerning them; so it now remains to speak of animals and their Nature.  So far as in us lies, we will not leave out any one of them, be it never so mean; for though there are animals which have no attractiveness for the senses, yet for the eye of science, for the student who is naturally of a philosophic spirit and can discern the causes of things, Nature which fashioned them provides joys which cannot be measured. If we study mere likenesses of these things and take pleasure in so doing, because then we are contemplating the painter’s or the carver’s Art which fashioned them, and yet fail to delight much more in studying the works of Nature themselves, though we have the ability to discern the actual causes—that would be a strange absurdity indeed. Wherefore we must not betake ourselves to the consideration of the meaner animals with a bad grace, as though we were children; since in all natural things there is somewhat of the marvellous. There is a story which tells how some visitors once wished to meet Heracleitus, and when they entered and saw him in the kitchen, warming himself at the stove, they hesitated; but Heracleitus said“ Come in ; don’t be afraid ; there are gods even here.” In like manner, we ought not to hesitate nor to be abashed, but boldly to enter upon our researches concerning animals of every sort and kind, knowing that in not one of them is Nature or Beauty lacking. I add “Beauty”, because in the works of Nature purpose and not accident is predominant; and the purpose or end for the sake of which those works have been constructed or formed has its place among what is beautiful.” (transl. by A. L. Peck, Harvard University Press, rev. printing 2006)